Leadership educators must consider how to most effectively develop youth knowledge, skills, attitudes, aspirations and leadership abilities when facilitating leadership development. During the first two millennia, leadership was adult- centered, with little focus on development. To develop effective leadership programs, it is essential that leadership educators: consider the implications of societal trends; project the contexts of 21st century leadership; understand and apply the principles of effective youth leadership development; and, develop meaningful adult and adolescent partnerships to prepare youth for success in the third millennium.
As we enter the third millennium we will need to involve new audiences in achieving evolving goals in different ways if we wish to maintain and strengthen our leadership development programs. We propose one approach that holds promise toward achieving this goal: strengthening adult and adolescent partnerships. We propose that it is through these partnerships, which involve planning, conducting, and evaluating programs involving adults with high school and college-age youth, that we can achieve this goal.
To develop leadership programs that are both effective and successful, it is essential that leadership educators: a) consider societal trends and their implications for leadership development, b) project the contexts of 21st century
leadership for which today’s youth must be prepared, c) understand the principles of effective youth leadership development, and d) apply these principles in developing adult and adolescent partnerships. It is through these four strategies that we can prepare youth with the leadership knowledge, attitudes, skills and aspirations they will need to be successful as we move into the third millennium.
Accordingly, we’ve divided the paper into four sections: societal trends, projected contexts, principles, and partnerships. Through this paper we hope that leadership educators will be able to refine their focus for maximizing the success of their programs and developing more effective leadership development partnerships with adolescents.
Societal Trends and Implications for Leadership
At the beginning of the 21st century, we find the western world to be very different than at the beginning of the 20th century. For example, the 1900’s brought two world wars, the cold war and volatile worldwide “hot” spots. Communism vs. democracy was a key issue during the last half of the century. Toward the end of the century the term “globalization” was coined and the emergence of free enterprise/capitalism in socialist countries developed as the Iron Curtain and Berlin Wall fell. With major advances in technology, manufacturing reached the most efficient level in history, to the point that the western world is now shifting from a simple producer-consumer economy to a complex information-based economy. Tremendous advances in health and medicine have occurred with cures discovered for formerly devastating illnesses.
With these strides have come tremendous change, increasing complexity, longer life spans and redefinition of the roles of men, women, and youth within the society. Adulthood is much more complex today than at the turn of the century, when the primary emphasis was on traditional roles of “bread winning” for men and raising a family for women. Similarly, societal definitions of “youth” have changed since 1900 when the transition from childhood to adulthood occurred in three or four short years during the mid-teens when the majority of people finished their education, ended their financial dependence upon parents and began their own families. In western society today, this period of transition typically extends a decade or even more to the extent that adolescence is now considered a separate life-stage in which individuals extend their education and prepare for adult roles, but do not typically achieve adult independence until their mid-twenties.
It is reasonable to predict that the rapid rate of societal change will continue. The arenas in which today’s youth will exercise leadership in the 21st century will be as different from those of this century as those of 20th century leaders were different from the 19th century. Therefore, to predict emerging leadership styles for the next millennium, leadership educators must first define the status of
society in the third millennium by examining some key parameters. A number of authors (Block, 1993; Culp & Cox, 1996; Drucker, 1994; Naisbitt, 1994; Oleson, 1994; and Woyach, 1993) have projected a variety of alternative futures for society.
To form some basis for determining the leadership context in which youth should be prepared for leadership in 21st century society, leadership educators should consider and project trends in each of the major societal arenas. The authors pose the following list of questions that should be considered and addressed:
How will the roles of government change in the next 100 years?
What will the role of families be in 2100? What differences will we see in the affection sector of society compared with now?
Will the importance of the skills sector in society increase or decrease by 2100 and what changes will occur?
What new knowledge will make a difference in society?
What will happen to the distribution of wealth and how will wealth be generated in the future, compared with now?
What changes can we expect in health care and the human condition in the next century?
How will social activism and civic involvement change?
What will the role of religion, ethics and spirituality be in the year 2100 compared with today?
These and similar questions should be considered by leadership educators to plan and conduct programs which are effective in preparing youth for 21st century leadership. In an effort to begin the discussion, we offer the following projections:
Power: An organized federation of world governments may emerge which will serve the people and provide a forum for resolving global issues (the people will not serve the government.) Additionally, the federation will be “bottom-heavy” and will not do for people or individual countries what they are capable of accomplishing themselves specializing in focusing or resolving certain problems. The federation may likely develop resource teams that travel to different countries to teach people how to do things themselves. World financial aid may actually decrease.
Affection: Greater attention will be paid to the upbringing of children. Society will continue to become more sensitive to the needs of children. Increasing emphasis will be placed on family structure. Business and industry may begin to provide “family leave” in addition to maternity leave to qualifying employees, particularly those in upper level positions. The definition of “family” will continue to be redefined. Childcare will be provided at the workplace or by the employer. More people will work out of their home (their home office will be linked electronically with the world) so
as to devote more time to raising their children.
Skills/Schools: Year-round schooling will be in place in much of the world. Alternatives to public school will be more accessible. There will be fewer teachers and more facilitators in classrooms. Schools and teachers will be rewarded based upon documented effectiveness of teaching and learning in the classroom. Learning institutions will be linked globally and most students will have electronic “pen pals” or “project collaborators” in other states, countries and continents whom they will interact with, learn from and work cooperatively together. The world-wide web will be formatted with different levels. Gatekeepers and a jury process will be in place to determine what may be added to the web and on what level it shall be accessible. Service learning will be a curricular component of most schools.
Knowledge: We will experience a decentralization of the discovery of new knowledge. Heightened technology will facilitate a larger allocation of resources, ready to access world data bases.
Wealth: One of two possible scenarios will develop (or possibly both, at different times!). 1) World wealth will be centered in a few (five or fewer) huge financial institutions and business and industry will be centralized in large conglomerates and corporations. And/or 2) the world will experience a financial revolution with a systematic redistribution of wealth. Business and industry, after growing to huge proportions, will return to smaller sizes, managed by efficient entrepreneurs.
Well Being: Childcare will be provided by the workplace. Mothers will not be seen as primary care-givers. Basic health and medical care will be available for all people through their employment. Perinatal care will be provided to all expectant mothers at little or no cost and may be a requirement to receive any future public assistance. Heroic measures will be available only to the wealthy and will not be standard procedure. Public assistance will be reduced as responsibility is transferred from local, state and federal governments to individuals.
Respect: Social activism and responsibility will increase. An exocentric society will emerge, with members seeing themselves as part of a global community (as opposed to intro-centricity).
Rectitude: Religion will play a larger role in government and world affairs and will become increasingly important, especially in regards to leadership. Key religious leaders will have significant positions of leadership in the Federation and will help to shape the future of the universe. Religions will lag behind cultures in merging memberships and blending ideals.
Projected Contexts for 21st Century Leadership
As noted earlier, we believe the rapid rate of societal change will continue. The contexts in which today’s youth will exercise leadership in the 21st century will undoubtedly be very different from those of the current century. As leadership educators, we now look beyond the dawn of the 3rd Millennium and need to consider how we should prepare youth for leadership roles in the 21st century. Assuming that some basis of validity exists in the previous projections, the following are proposed as seven alternative leadership contexts for which leadership educators may want to prepare youth:
Administrative leaders will use a traditional, top-down management style. Administration may seek limited input or may underutilize information from non-management units. Most decision-making responsibility rests with high level administrators. Some lower-level decisions will be made by middle managers within their own units. Administrative leaders will be most interested in expediency, efficiency, cost effectiveness, implementation, outcomes and results, rather than on the process by which the decision is made. Lower-level administrators may be involved by gathering information, formulating data, possibly making presentations and recommendations; but final authority for the decisions will rest solely with management. An administrative leadership style may be utilized by small, independent entrepreneurs and will not likely be utilized often in education, finance or the corporate world.
People using this leadership style will be “catalytic” and collaborative in nature; their style of leadership is nurturing, somewhat leading and helps or challenges others to think, plan, dream, focus and develop vision. As a result of a catalytic leader’s input, individuals or groups may reconsider their previous thoughts, beliefs or stances and become energized as they work toward a new standard, procedure or ideal. Catalytic leaders will plant ideas, nurture them in fertile minds and provide support to team members along the way. Catalytic leaders may work most often in groups or committees where they will endeavor to assemble a group of bright minds and work together to develop new strategies, alternatives, tactics or paradigms. Catalytic leaders will be highly supported by their colleagues, because the colleagues will feel ownership of and responsibility for the resulting outcome. Team leaders will likely use a catalytic leadership style with those who are in mentoring, nurturing or staff development roles.
Collegial leaders will gain power by giving it away, exercising leadership through relationships with others. Collegial leaders will utilize group process and
team building activities and techniques to bring the group to a consensus. Collegial leaders will be slower to act than other leadership types, because of the time spent building support and relationships. However, the collegial leader will be highly regarded and supported by those working closely with him/her.
Collegial leaders may be more interested in the decision making process than in the decision at which the group ultimately arrives. This leadership style will used most when groups search for new solutions, respond to new paradigms or technological advances or shifts occur in tastes, opinions, preferences or societal demands.
Humanitarian leaders support or minister to people or groups with causes… hunger, poverty, pestilence, neglect or abuse. Humanitarian leaders may have already achieved fame, fortune, power or recognition in another area, and will lend or utilize the influence of their name, talent or celebrity to a cause in order to affect well for those whom they feel are less fortunate than themselves.
Humanitarian leaders will be solely interested in outcomes and will not spend much time on implementing details. Rather, they will sound themselves with a team of implementers that will handle details, production and implementation.
The primary contributions of humanitarian leaders will be twofold: to gain attention and recognition of the situation and to raise financial support to address the problem. They will be concerned with efficacy, speed and making a difference in people’s lives. Humanitarian leaders will exist in two realms: activists and “passivists.” Activists will be extroverted, have hands-on involvement, media-focused and high in profile. Passivists will be less involved and content to lend their name to a particular cause in which they believe. They will be supportive of the philanthropy, but will not choose to be as actively involved in a high profile effort as would an activist.
Innovative leaders will be needed to contribute new ideas, procedures, inventions, and alternatives. These will be the people who have “built a better mouse trap” and found a way to effectively market it and capitalize upon these successes. Innovative leaders may not initially recognize their own value as a leader; but rather, this style of leadership will be recognized by someone on the peripheral who will either redirect, reallocate or “hire them away” for their own group. Innovative leaders may be more introverted and content to think and dream; allowing others the opportunity to market and implement their innovations. Innovative leaders will largely be interested in the outcome, not on the process by which it was developed. However, innovative leaders will be closely in tune with their own unique niche in society and will constantly be in search of a more efficient means of doing something or developing an innovation or procedure for an unserved need. Innovative leadership styles will be useful in
research and development, product enhancement and development, marketing and business and corporate mergers.
Religiosity leaders will provide spiritual leadership often, but not always through church or religious groups. They may or may not be ordained clergy but will appeal to non-secular groups. Their views will largely support ethics, cooperation, goodwill and religious principles. They may appear to be radical to some, but may, over time, build a silent majority. Religiosity leaders will seek to be “middle of the road” in their approach to decision making, gaining the support and consensus of colleagues, while remaining fairly firm on the outcomes and principles in which they rest their personal beliefs and laurels.
Visionary leaders are those who have truly cultivated a knack for developing a vision for the future. People will flock to and attach themselves to visionary leaders whose goals and interests are similar to their own. More often, visionary leaders will be somewhat single-minded in the pursuit of achieving their own goals and accomplishing their agendas. Visionary leaders will not only be thinkers; they’ll be dreamers. They’ll dream of ideals, standards of perfection and better ways of doing things. All visionary leaders will not, however, be humanitarians. A vision and means of linking every household with the Internet could be an example of a modern day visionary leader. Every business and corporation should be careful to place at least one visionary leader on its board of directors and take care to heed that leader’s advice. (IBM and Apple probably wish that they had!)
No one can accurately predict the future and, therefore, determine exactly how leadership roles will evolve. However, different leadership styles have been effectively used during the two previous millennia and it is safe to assume that leadership will continue to evolve during the third millennium.
Principles for Effective Youth Leadership Development
While determining how to best facilitate leadership development during the next century, it becomes important to consider how leadership educators may most effectively develop youth knowledge, skills, attitudes, aspirations and abilities of leadership. During the first two millennia, leadership was an adult-focused concept, and little, if any, attention was given to leadership development of youth. As society develops, it is important to consider that youth, as well as adults, must participate in leadership development activities in the next century.
Woyach and Cox (1992) involved CEO administrative leaders, representing the nation’s 25 major youth leadership development programs, in a Delphi study.
The study resulted in the development of ten principles for effective youth leadership development. We argue that these principles are needed to maintain and strengthen programs and to effectively prepare youth for leadership in the 21st century.
Effective youth leadership programs
Are developed around stated purposes and goals
Programs should be thoughtfully designed and explicitly articulate what they are trying to accomplish. Although enabling young people to develop leadership knowledge, attitudes, skills and/or aspirations is a basic goal of all youth leadership programs, effective programs meet the specific needs and interests of its target audience through well-developed purposes and goals.
Encourage high expectations and confidence in youth and demonstrate respect for youth
Having someone who respects and believes in them motivates youth to develop the confident attitudes and aspirations which are characteristic of successful leaders. Those who work with youth leadership development programs should convey and demonstrate with every action, word and deed that they respect, have confidence in and have high expectations of each program participant.
Emphasize experiential learning and provide opportunities for genuine leadership
Leadership is learned by doing. Youth should be involved in exercising real leadership by designing, conducting and evaluating programs and activities in real life situations. As leaders, youth should be encouraged to take prudent risks, learn from their successes and failures and continue their growth and development in future leadership experiences.
Enable youth to understand the history, values and beliefs of their society
Effective leaders must understand the society of which they are a part, even if they seek to change that society. Young people need to learn to think critically regarding the history, values and beliefs of their society in order to understand problems and needs, consider alternatives, make acceptable decisions, take appropriate action and otherwise be successful in exercising leadership.
Promote awareness, understanding and tolerance of others
We live in a world that has been made more complex and diverse by our global age. To be effective and authentic, leaders must have the capacity to work with people outside their social group on the basis of empathy and tolerance.
Involve youth in collaborative experiences, teamwork and networking with peers
Young people need to experience collaborative teamwork in order to develop the skills and understanding needed to work with other people in democratic groups.
Help youth develop skills related to leadership
Effective leadership programs provide opportunities for youth to develop these and other key leadership skills: envisioning, communications, making group decisions, resolving conflicts (negotiation), motivating people, advocating ideas, creating positive images, gaining legitimacy and building coalitions among groups.
Involve youth in positive relationships with mentors and other significant adults
A multitude of research studies have concluded that significant relationships with mentors, role models and other nurturing adults are a key factor in the development of leadership (Amorose & Horn, 2000; Arminio, Carter, Jones, Kruger, Lucase, Washington, Young & Scott, 2000; Baker, 1993; Cox, 1988; Devlin-Schere, 1997; Hart & Kean, 1996; Shandley, 1989; Leppo, 1987;
Plucker, 1998; Propost & Koesler, 1998; Romano, 1996; Shamanoff, 1985; Summers, 2000;). Effective adolescent leadership programs should include the development of such positive relationships between youth and adults.
Facilitate the development of individual strengths and personal characteristics
There is no one successful leadership style and no single set of personality traits that make for a successful leader. Programs should enable youth to develop a valid appreciation of their strengths and weaknesses, and to understand the ethics and beliefs which guide their behavior.
Encourage youth to provide service to individuals, communities and the larger society
Young people should learn that service is intrinsic to leadership. That is, leadership implies serving the group or community, rather than controlling the group or community. Programs should encourage young people to value service, and exercise responsible community citizenship.
While many of these principles may appear to be “common sense” to experienced leadership educators, incorporating the principles on a continuing basis in planning and conducting youth leadership education programs requires diligence. However, such diligence in considering and applying the principles is necessary if programs are to be maintained and strengthened to effectively prepare youth for leadership in the 21st century.
Development of Adult and Adolescent Partnerships for Preparing 21st Century Leadership
As noted in the principle, “effective youth leadership programs involve youth in significant relationships with mentors, positive role models or other nurturing adults,” strengthening adult and adolescent partnerships in planning, conducting and evaluating programs is one means to strengthen quality of programs and prepare youth for leadership in the early third millennium begins (Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1995).
Accepting that an evolving society has necessitated a shift in youth leadership roles, it is clear that a shifting of leadership paradigms will be needed. With these seven alternative leadership paradigms in mind, Cox and Culp (1996) outline a five stage continuum of successful Adult/Teen Roles in Leadership Development which are useful in implementing these seven new leadership paradigms (see figure 1). It is important to note that each of these five stages is effectively and correctly utilized in different situations. There is no single “correct” or “best” approach to use in every situation and adult/teen relationship.
Adult Control Consultation Partnership Delegation Teen Control
Figure 1. A continuum of Adult /Teen Working Relationships
These adult/teen roles include:
The power and decision-making responsibility rests with the adults. Adults plan and structure teen programs, activities and experiences. Examples of this stage include: scheduling dates of events and activities; orientation of new volunteers; screening volunteers, conducting background and reference checks; determining admission prices; contracting with facilities, speakers, caterers, etc.
Consultation with Teens
Teens are consulted by adults in the planning and implementation stages. However, adults have veto power and expect teens to either be in or revert to agreement. Examples in this stage include selecting speakers and entertainers, establishing policy and visiting and selecting sites and facilities.
Partnership with Teens
Teens share power, decision-making and responsibility with adults. Adults and teens discuss and arrive at mutual agreement on decisions. Examples of this stage include: planning program agendas, establishing negotiable rules, co- teaching sessions and administering discipline for rule infractions.
Delegation of Power to Teens
This stage involves negotiation between adults and teens. Teens assume absolute authority over some aspects of the program, experience or individual activities. Examples include coordinating specific activities at an event; selecting a youth to serve in a leadership role; and charging committees with responsibility for specific events or activities.
Teens plan and make decisions. Adults serve in an advisory capacity and serve to mediate conflicts, facilitate group process or legalize programs. Examples here include coordinating and staffing a refreshment stand; planning for and conducting a dance; and serving as hosts or ambassadors.
Clearly, as indicated by the continuum, there is not one “best” way to work with teens in developing leadership. Leadership educators who work with teens need to take stock of their own situation, the purposes of their programs, their own strengths and weaknesses and the personalities and development levels of the adolescents with whom they work to decide at which point on the continuum their relationship with youth should fall. However, a major factor in whether teens decide to stay in or drop out of programs is the degree of control maintained by the adults who work with them. Teens tend to drop out of clubs and groups where the adults do everything. Conversely, teens tend to continue membership in clubs and groups in which adults relinquish and delegate roles and responsibilities in keeping with the needs and interests of the teens involved.
Regardless of whether adults or teens have more control in the relationship, there are some “tips for success” for adults to be effective in working with teens.
Caring, respect, enthusiasm, honesty and high expectations, fairness, guidance & encouragement, meeting teen needs, responsibility, confidence, and openness are all very important. Culp & Cox (1996) identified ten tips for success for adults working with teens in leadership development programs. These tips include:
An initial planning meeting to establish goals and guidelines should be held. During this meeting, the specific adult/teen working relationship (see figure 1) should be established, including specifics about roles and responsibilities for
each group. Regardless of the type of relationship, both adults and teens should view themselves as team players (on the same team!) Adult role models should communicate high expectations, demonstrate trust and be respectful of the feelings and opinions of others. There should be no hidden agendas or surprises along the way to impede progress or erode trust and confidence.
Make It Fun, Fun, Fun!
Leadership can be a fun, joyous, fulfilling, exciting part of life. Sharing the enthusiasm which makes leaders successful is not only important. It is essential for keeping today’s teens involved long enough to develop genuine leadership abilities.
Adults care for and about teens and are dedicated to the program, cause, relationship and experiences that they share. Often, this caring relationship extends beyond programmatic boundaries and into personal life. Sending a note of congratulations, a birthday card or clipping of an article that appeared in a local newspaper demonstrates that adults genuinely care about youth counterparts.
Adult mentors should demonstrate both enthusiasm for the task, opportunity and relationship, as well as humor throughout the experience. Enthusiasm is contagious, and individuals serving as mentors or in positions of leadership will transmit their zeal for a project or activity to others.
Adults must be both fair and reasonable in their requests and expectations. Youth leadership educational programs must be developmentally appropriate, yet must challenge youth participants to stretch and grow. Treating them inequitably or communicating low expectations will impede the process.
Guidance and Encouragement
Adult mentors should provide guidance, training and encouragement during the process and experiences. The mentoring role is crucial to the process and youth participants should be expected to grow and develop skills and abilities throughout the process. Positive feedback, support, guidance and encouragement will promote this development.
Meet Youth Needs
Adult role models should take time to learn and appreciate the needs, wants and expectations of the youth with whom they are working and interacting.
Everyone enters a relationship with needs and expectations, and it would be unfair for one partner to overlook or assume to understand the needs of another. It is important to remember that youth leadership education is one component of youth development.
Youth must be involved and given real responsibilities during the leadership education process. Youth must not be regarded as “participants” or “informational receivers.” Giving youth responsibility for their own progress and development should facilitate greater growth, understanding and leadership development.
Adults should demonstrate a positive attitude of confidence and trust in youth and their abilities. This may be accomplished through trust, by giving opportunities to make decisions or present programs, and by avoiding micro- management.
Adult role models need to be open to suggestions and constructive criticism. No one is perfect and most adults are relatively comfortable in dispensing constructive advice and suggestions. Therefore, to complete the leadership development process, to develop trust, foster confidence and to ensure personal development on the part of the adult, the adult mentor needs to solicit and be receptive to suggestions from youth.
Summary and Recommendations
Involving new audiences in achieving evolving goals in different ways will be increasingly important for maintaining and strengthening leadership development programs as we enter the next millennium. Strengthening adult and adolescent partnerships in planning, conducting, and evaluating programs targeted toward high school and college-age youth is one approach for achieving this goal.
To strengthen partnerships and develop programs that prepare youth with the leadership attributes they will need for success as we move into the next millennium, educators should be mindful of a number of factors. It is recommended that leadership educators consider societal trends that have
implications for leadership development, projected 21st century leadership contexts, and application of the principles of effective youth leadership development in each phase of program development. The attached assessment inventory summarizes these considerations and is recommended for use by leadership educators in planning, conducting, and evaluating programs to assure maximum effectiveness in leadership development through youth and adult partnerships.
Amorose, A.J. & Horn, T.S. (2000). Intrinsic motivation; Relationship with collegiate athlete’s gender, scholarship status and perceptions of their coaches’ behavior. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 22(1),63-84.
Arminio, J.L., S. Carter, S. E. Jones, K. Kruger, N. Lucas, J. Washington, N.Young, & Scott, A. (2000). Leadership experiences of students of color. NASPA Journal, 37(3),496-510.
Baker, V.L. (1993). Taking the lead in student activities. High School Magazine.
Block, P. (1993). Stewardship. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. (1995). Consultation on After School Programs. New York: Carnegie Corporation.
Culp, III, K. & Cox, K.J. (1996). Leadership in the new millennium:Creating new paradigms. Paper presented at Leadership in the Liberal Arts Conference, April 15, 1996. Marietta, OH.
Culp, III, K. & Cox, K.J. (1996). Leadership styles for the third millennium: Creating new paradigms. Journal of Leadership Studies, 4(1),3-17.
Culp, III, K. & Cox, K.J. (1996). Working With Teens. Workshop guide.Columbus: Ohio State University Extension.
Cox, K.J. (1988). Significant adolescent leadership development experiences identified by established leaders in the United States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Columbus: The Ohio State University.
Devlin-Schere, R. (1997). Peer leadership in a rural setting. ERIC Document 421484 (on-line).
Drucker, P.F. (1993). Post-Capitalist Society. New York: Harper Collins.
Hart, F. & Kean, A. (1996). Lifestyles of the student leader: Making decisions based on the C.O.R.E. Campus Activities Programming, 28(9),52-54.
Leppo, J. (1987). Students teaching students leadership: Peer leadership training programs. Campus Activities Programming, 20(4),67-71.
Naisbitt, J. (1994). Global Paradox. New York: Avon Books.
Oleson, E. (1994). Mastering the Winds of Change. New York: Harper Collins.
Plucker, J.A. (1998). The relationship between school climate conditions and student aspirations. Journal of Educational Research, 91(4),240-246.
Propst, D.B. & Koesler, R.A. (1998). Bandura goes outdoors: Role of self- efficacy in the outdoor leadership development process. Leisure Sciences, 20(4),319-344.
Romano, C.R. (1996). A qualitative study of women student leaders. Journal of College Student Development, 37(6),676-83.
Shamanoff, G.A. (1985). The women mentor project: A sharing approach.
Roeper Review, 7(3),163-164.
Shandley, T.C. (1989). The use of mentors for leadership development. NASPA Journal, 27(1),59-66.
Summers, P.P. (2000). The roots of leadership. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 37(1),27-36.
Woyach, R.B.(1993). Preparing for Leadership: A Young Adult’s Guide to Leadership Skills in a Global Age. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Woyach, R.B. & Cox, K.J. (1992). Principles for youth leadership development. 4-H Teen Leadership Handbook. Columbus: Ohio State University Extension.
Assessment Inventory Developing Leadership through Adult and Adolescent Partnerships in the 21st Century
Please respond to the following questions using this scale to evaluate your program.
5 = excellent
4 = very good
3 = good
2 = fair
1 = poor
1. How well is your program positioned for leadership development for the 21st century in relation to…
1. Projected governmental changes?
2. Differences in families and family structures?
3. Educational changes?
4. New discoveries from research?
5. Generation and distribution of wealth and funding?
6. Projected changes in health care and quality of life?
7. Social activism, civic involvement, societal change and service?
8. The role of religion, ethics and spirituality?
How well does your program prepare youth for leadership roles in the 21st century?
1. Administrative – utilize a traditional, top-down management style.
2. Catalytic- those who focus on mentoring, nurturing or staff development.
3. Collegial – provide leadership collaboratively through relationships with others.
4. Humanitarian/Activist – focus on supporting or ministering to causes.
5. Innovative – contribute innovative ideas, procedures, inventions, etc.
6. Religiosity – provide spiritual leadership.
7. Visionary – those who develop and share visions for the future.
How well does your program…
1. Effectively communicate its purposes and goals?
2. Demonstrate high expectations for, confidence in, and respect for youth?
3. Emphasize experiential learning and provide opportunities genuine leadership?
4. Enable youth to understand the history, values, and beliefs of their society.
5. Promote awareness, understanding, and tolerance.
6. Involve youth in collaborations, teamwork, and networking with peers.
7. Help youth develop skills related to leadership.
8. Involve youth in significant relationships with adults.
9. Facilitate the development of individual strengths and personal characteristics.
10. Encourage youth to provide service.
How well does your program utilize the following techniques for creating successful working relationships with youth?