Perhaps the central question of leadership education is: how do individuals become leaders? This question begs the more important question from an educational perspective, namely what does a “leader” look like? As Michael Dickmann (2008) offers, what do leaders KnowDoBe (yes, all one word)? Theoretical frameworks provide a necessary and extraordinarily helpful foundation for the often unique approaches of leadership educators. As the field evolves, however, theory must be replaced by research-based models. To this end, Komives, Longerbeam, Mainella, Osteen, Owen, and Wagner take a significant step for the field in their work on further developing one picture of how a leader develops and what that end might look like. They reiterate the six-stage Leadership Identity Development (LID) model, highlighting key transition points that educators would be well-advised to note. In this highly thoughtful contribution, the LID model is examined vis-à-vis other developmental theories and in the context of common leadership education issues at multiple levels of analysis. After examining macro level issues such as assessment and program design, and micro level issues such as effective group work and promoting self-efficacy, Komives et al., offer a concise sum of ten recommendations regarding the application of the LID model within leadership education.

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