Hoyt and Kennedy (2008) asserted that women deal with messages related to appearance, behavior, and leadership identity that promote a loss of voice starting at a young age. More specifically, these societal messages and expectations convey constructs of effective leadership that are often associated with men (Eagly & Carli, 2003; Eagly & Karau, 2002; Koenig, Eagly, Mitchell, & Ristikari, 2011). In a meta-analysis on leadership perceptions, men were perceived as more agentic and women were perceived as more communal. Further, agentic qualities were perceived to be leadership qualities and communal qualities were not (Koenig et al., 2011). While these perceptions of “think manager, think male” (Schein, 2001) have evolved, women still hold only 29% of executive or senior level positions among private industry (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2012), which is disproportional to the general population. What underlies the problem of disproportional representation among women leaders is that women are judged differently as leaders. Progress has been made, but overall discrimination for women leaders still exists (Duehr & Bono, 2006; Eagly, 2007; Schein, 2001).

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