Volume 17, Issue 4 -- 2018

We examined the relationship between high school and collegiate organizational involvement and their differential and collective effects on the development of leader selfefficacy, motivation to lead and leadership skill. Our goal was to better understand how the student leader development process unfolds at different points in time over young adulthood. The study investigated members of registered student organizations (n=757) during the Fall 2016 semester. Results of the study indicated strong developmental relationships between past high school involvement, current collegiate involvement and leader capacity change. Positional leadership and students’ priority placed on their involvement during high school were predictive of leader skill and self-efficacy, while in college, only mental and physical engagement in organizations predicted leader development.

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International students develop perceptions about leadership based on cultural practices in their home country. What is the leadership experience of international students in the United States? This study sought to describe the lived leadership experiences of international graduate students. A total of 17 participants, from 11 different countries were recruited for face-to-face indepth interviews. The participants were enrolled in a large public university and served in a formal leadership position on campus. Four themes emerged concerning graduate students’ leadership experience with leadership and were categorized as: (1) contextually challenging; (2) essential; (3) task and people oriented, and; (4) rewarding. Recommendations are made for campus personnel and leadership educators who support international students.

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The Student Leadership Competencies Inventory consists of eight scales, each corresponding to its relevant leadership construct within the Student Leadership Competencies framework (Seemiller, 2013). Due to the increasing use of the framework and associated inventory in leadership development programs in higher education, we conducted a thorough analysis of the psychometric properties within each scale. Specifically, using a national dataset of university student responses, we analyzed internal reliability statistics, and conducted exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation and maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis for each of the eight scales. Our results suggested that all scales, overall, possess sufficient strength to be considered valid measures of the leadership constructs within the Inventory, with some notably high co-variances between certain sub-scale factors in several scales.

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This study concerned aspiring educational leaders’ problem-solving skill development, specifically through classroom instruction with real-world scenarios. Professional educators obtaining an advanced degree in educational administration at a public university were surveyed in the fall and spring about their problem-solving abilities. Participants were also asked to respond to real-world principal scenarios. Focus group interviews were conducted in the spring. Results indicated that participants’ confidence in their problem-solving abilities did improve, though their ability to address the real-world problems did not improve significantly. Participants identified the value of learning from real-world scenarios and professors who had experience as administrators, and they also recognized the importance of learning from one another during discussions of the scenarios. Participants indicated that they still needed experience working in actual administrative contexts.

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This study examined the differences between a multi-campus sample of university students who reported consistent participation in formal leadership development programs (n=414) and a comparison sample (n=153) with no prior experience across three diverse postsecondary institutions in the United States. Both samples were matched with regard to gender and racial identity, prior self-reported high school leadership training experience, and selfreported possession of formal leadership positions in co-curricular student organizations. Results suggest that students who report past consistent participation in postsecondary leadership training report levels of leadership capacity no different than those with no training. In addition, like their peers they also possess a cognitive model of leadership capacity that fails to differentiate leader self-efficacy, motivation to lead, and leadership skill.

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Non-profit and volunteer-based organizations are tasked with meeting the needs of their communities with limited resources. Today, more than ever, these organizations are stretched to their limits increasing the workload for paid staff. Training volunteers to lead the volunteer efforts is one way to spread the workload throughout the organization. Although there are guidelines for leadership development in for-profit organizations, there is limited literature pertaining to specific competencies and skills volunteer leaders in nonprofit and volunteer-based organizations should possess. This study, employing Delphi methodology, was conducted with volunteer directors in the community to identify leadership competencies for volunteer leaders. At the conclusion of three rounds of iteration, 42 competencies were identified.

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This essay discusses the impact that a negotiations class had on a group of women at a private, liberal arts college. Perceptions, confidence levels, and negotiations frequency were all examined to determine if a significant change could be seen in the participants. Utilizing an experience-based class structure, students were given the opportunity to learn, practice, share feelings, and critique performance. Results indicate that women may benefit from schools offering more access to negotiation classes at the undergraduate level across all disciplines in order to build this critical skillset.

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Research suggests effective immersive simulations that rely on augmented reality enhance teachers’ self-efficacy and skills (Badiee & Kauffman, 2015). However, there is a gap in the literature as studies have largely ignored their uses in educational leadership programs (Bradley & Kendall, 2015). This study investigated the relationship between application of critical skills within an immersive simulation environment and 26 school or district leaders’ perceptions of self-efficacy in leading a professional learning community (PLC). Two overarching themes materialized from participants: improved general confidence in leading a PLC, and a sense of refined or expanded skills in the context of new approaches to leading PLC. Further studies are needed on the use of immersive simulation as a pedagogical tool and to examine impact for educational leadership practitioners.

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Each of us has an implicit leadership theory, a mental model we are largely unaware of, that represents the skills, traits, and qualities that define effective leaders. Curiously, the peerreviewed literature has reported almost exclusively on the ideal attributes of leaders, overlooking the axiomatic and taken-for-granted views people have about the activity we colloquially refer to as “leadership.” Some of these beliefs about leadership are so common and accepted as true that challenging them is counterintuitive, yet they can limit organizational effectiveness. In this article, we discuss four common leadership misunderstandings that contribute to the fabric of our self-evident, unexamined common sense view of leadership. Challenging these misconceptions provides the opportunity to create a new paradigm of leadership, one that could enhance organizational performance.

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Current research on millennials primarily focuses on their behavior within an academic or workplace setting. This study expands on previous analysis by exploring how millennials respond to community leadership efforts, particularly cohort leadership programs. Participant outcomes from University of Minnesota Extension’s County Bridging Leadership Program revealed that millennials—particularly those without a four-year degree—experienced significantly higher gains in several skill areas relevant to community development than nonmillennials. Recruiting more millennials to participate in community leadership programs is critical not only to keep younger people in rural communities but also to strengthen future community vitality.

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INVITED MANUSCRIPT-- ASSOCIATION OF LEADERSHIP EDUCATORS OUTSTANDING PAPER

Leadership is filled with concepts that often do not have an agreed upon definition. The purpose of this paper is to share a learning activity that provokes students’ thinking about the nature of leadership using six leadership definitions. This activity is a dynamic starting place to explore what leadership is and is not, how it differs from management, a historical perspective of leadership, and students’ diverse perspectives about leadership. This activity is a straightforward, critical thinking exercise that offers a conduit to a deeper understanding that how we define leadership says something about what we value in a leader. We suggest modifications to this definitional exercise and discuss how to use it in different teaching environments.

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Individuals with skills specific to innovation and entrepreneurial strategy are in high demand within the contemporary workforce. This demand transcends most, if not all, professions and career paths. Yet, entrepreneurial leadership education continues to be viewed mostly as a business-oriented domain. We expand the otherwise narrow scope of entrepreneurial leadership education through an examination of the effects of an interdisciplinary, project-based entrepreneurial leadership course on student proclivities to leading change. We used a retrospective pre- and post-measure pre-experimental design to conduct the study. Our findings indicate an increase across the sample (n = 62) in entrepreneurial leadership proclivity following course completion. The insights we generate reveal opportunities for strengthening collegiate entrepreneurial leadership curriculum and instruction and enhancing the capacities of students to become effective leaders of change (i.e., change agents).

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INVITED MANUSCRIPT-- ASSOCIATION OF LEADERSHIP EDUCATORS OUTSTANDING PAPER

Women leaders operate within multiple roles, managing both work and nonwork obligations. Exploring work-life balance constructs, this study examined role integration, social support sources, and work-family conflict to determine their influence on women leaders. Findings suggested that women leaders felt the benefit of a variety of social support services, but especially from sources external to the organization. Women leaders were diverse in role integration strategies, with respondents largely divided between blurring and segregating their work and nonwork roles. Time-based work-family conflict was slightly more apparent than strain-based conflict. Women leaders also indicated that their work interfered with their family more than their family interfered with their work. Findings provide valuable insights as to how women view work-life balance within their roles as leaders.

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Metacognition is linked to academic achievement and personal development, especially as it relates to leadership education. The current study investigated the impact of a course in metacognition. Two hundred and fifty one undergraduates were surveyed for metacognitive ability using the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and Metacognitive Rubric (MR) before and after participating in a course either involving metacognitive training or alternative coursework. While minimal demographic differences were found, results showed significant improvement among students who trained in the metacognition class. Curricular development in the area of metacognition is recommended as it relates to leadership education.

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