We are approaching complexity from two perspectives, the complexity of the operating environment which is well established (Seijts, Billou, & Crossan, 2010; Vasconcelos & Ramirez, 2011; Collinson & Jay, 2012; Dervitsiotis, 2012; Haynes, 2015) and the complexity of the organization. The complexity of the organization is not well established in literature. Traditionally, leadership theories view organizations as machines with processes, sub-elements and resources that leaders analyze, disassemble, and reassemble in new and improved structures. This is an antiquated, industrial age perspective. A more effective view of organizations is as complex organic living systems (Wheatley, 2006; Goldstein, Hazy, & Lichtenstein, 2010). As a complex system, an organization can adapt and grow, as a machine cannot. Another important aspect of viewing an organization as a complex system is that a small group of people can make a major difference beyond the scope of their individual capacity (Goldstein, Hazy, & Lichtenstein, 2010). By accepting that organizations are complex, and by definition inherently capable of adapting, leaders can take positive action to set the conditions to enhance organizational adaptability.

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